Wigtownshire 1684

A side-effect of the persecution of Presbyterians during the reign of Charles II is that some amazing records were produced. A religious census was made in 1684. The results for Wigtownshire survived in entirety. The lists are remarkably useful because they give not merely the heads of each household, but also the names of every person aged 12 or older. The maiden names of all married women are also given.
Parish lists of Wigtownshire and Minnigaff, 1684
In the parish of Whithorn, the lists also provide the marital status and relationship to head of the household. This gives us information about how the society worked; for example, we can see that most servants were relatives of their employer. It looks as though teenagers normally worked for their brother-in-law.

There are also Covenanter records from 1679-1688. These show that Alexander Clugston and Patrick Clugston had taken part in the rebellion, and John Clugston also supported the rebels. There were two Provosts at the time, Coltrane (who drowned the Wigtown Martyrs) and William Clugstoun.

The lists are even more useful in combination with the Hearth Tax of 1695, which gives the heads of families eleven years later.

There is an additional reference in “Valuation of the Shire of Wigtown 1667” p 116 (Original manuscript visible for free on scotlandsplaces.gov.uk).

Unfortunately we have neither of these lists for Kirkcudbrightshire, apart from the region of Minigaff. But it is clear that these lists record almost all Clugstons outside of Ireland. The big mystery from these lists is, where did these people go? They seem to have had very few Clugston descendants.

The names are interesting. In 1684 there are five people called William Clugston, and five called John Clugston, three called Alexander, and four named Janet. There are none called Robert, Thomas, or James, but people with those names are known to have been in Ireland.
There are 17 men but only 9 women. This is not because of high mortality in childbirth: in total the survey has more women than men in every area where there are Clugstons. I think the women must be present with other names. One is probably Janet Cloug (living in Craiglaw, Kirkcowan), also the Clurg/McClurg family which has a family in Ochartoune, Sorbie, another in Thrive, Penighame, and a servant woman in Craig, Whithorn.

William Clugstone in the Valuation of 1667

Lochcraigoche is the land which Petir Clugiston owned in 1597, and which seemed to pass to his son William. It is the same land which Michael Clugston owned in 1635; Michael Clugston’s son William inherited land in Wigtown from Gilbert Clugston.


Earl of Galloway — 406 pounds
Wm Clugstone for Lochcraigoche — 110 pounds
Mondork 120 pounds (this is Uchtred McDowall)
Lyttill Mondork 120 pounds
Craichlaw — 1020 (this is William Gordon)
Drumbuy — 161 (This is Alexander McKie outlawed in 1679 for Presbyterianism)
Barneacht — 87
Culvennane — 587 (This is Alexander Gordon)
Girvan Maynes — 506
Banbrek — 38
Grange’s Barquhill and Killedam — 95
Freuche elder — 940 (this is Uchtred McDouall of Freuch)
Freuche younger — 120 (this is Umphray McDouall of Freuch)

Clugstons in the Parish List Of 1684

The remarkable one is Alexander Clugston of Whithorn, who was listed as a recusant, one of very few in the entire census. He was prepared to defy the government. I think this is Alexander Clugen, fugitive in the Covenanter records, because the only similar names are Clingen/Clingan, and Clurg/Clurge.

West: In Kirkcowan and Glenluce

Patrick Clugston (maybe=) Elizabeth Burny (Borland)
(Patrick was in in Balhasken 1695. died before 1721. Jean was his eldest lawful daughter)
Jean Clugston (= James Martin m 1721.1.7 Kirkcowan)

(Probably her first marriage: Janet Clugston = James Martin m 1697.2.25 Kirkcowan. Son William Martin b 1703.2.10)
(Probably her second marriage: Janet Clugstown = William Martin, their son William was bap 1706.4.4 Kirkcowan)

John Clugston was living at High Mindork with his wife Marion and son Andrew. The head of the farm was John Dalrumple.

John Clugston = Marion Hannah (1684:Overmondork)
Andrew Clugston
(this is probably Andrew Clugston of Longcastle, near Kirkinner, who had this son: John Clugston b 1695.2.24)

Robert Hannah was the miller at the mill of Clugston. http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~wghannay/clugston.html
Robert’s son Hugh 1666-

Jean, Hugh and Margaret were all at the mill. Probably they were teenage workers.
The mill of Barhoish is about 200m from the farm of Barhoish.
It seems from the 1695 records that John Clugston owned the mill. William Clugston also paid hearth tax in Barhoish.

John Clugston = Elizabeth Sprot (1684: Mill of Barhoish)

John Clugston = Margaret Milroy (1684: Barhoish. 1695: Barhoish)

Jean Clugston
Hugh Clugston
Margaret Clugston
(William Clugston also in Barhoish 1695 with a house)

Wm Clougston (1684: Cascreuch, Glenluce)
(Carscreugh was a farm next to Carscreugh Castle, the dwelling of Viscount Stair. Dirvairds is the next farm to the south).

In the Burgh of Wigtown

We know from the sasine records that Provost William Clugstoun owned a house at the West Port (city gate?) next to the Vennel, which was later known as Clugston’s Vennel. He appears about halfway down the list of names. His daughter, Janet Clugston, married John Stewart in 1681, and William gave them a bare patch of land at “Lichtland” at the edge of town. It seems she was widowed soon afterwards; in 1684 she seems to be the wife of Godfrey McCulloch. There is an extant bond from 1691 between Provost William and Michael Clugston, Merchant of Belfast.

William’s house was half an acre and was at the corner of the High Street and the common vennel (“Clugston’s Vennel”). In 1635 it was owned by Gilbert Clugston, and the neighbour to the west was John Wilkins.

How can there be three Williams?

Jannet Clugstoun = Godfrey McCulloch
(This is the very first name on the list. Presumably it is the edge of the town)

William Clugstone = Elizabeth Gordoun
Archibald Clugstone
(Also near the start of the list)

Provist [William] Clugstone = Mary Houstone [Also in 1695]
(We know that he was born in 1645 and was married)
(Next in the list after the Provost are these two, probably living in the same house. He had two hearths in 1695, so it was a relatively large house).
William Clugston, possibly married to Elizabeth Houstone, but more likely they are son and sister-in-law or mother-in-law of the Provost.
The Houstoune family had 30 people. Most lived in Whithorn Burgh. They owned Cotreoch farm in Whithorn.

East: Penighame and Minigaff

Eliz Clugston = Joh Taite (Penighame, Challach)

John Clougston = Janet McKie (Minigaff)

(Probably John’s son: Alexander Clugstoun= Elizabeth Frissell, m 1705.12.4 Minigaff)

South: Mochrum and Whithorn

Janet Clugston = Jon. McLokie. No kids. (Glastoun)

Mar[gare]t Clugston = Wm McGuffock (Mochrum, Dirrie)

Joh. Clugstone (Lands belonging to the Laird of Mochrum — the Dunbars) Possibly married to Jan Dun.

Alexander Clugstoune = Janet Clugstoune (Whithern)

Alexander Clugston (Kirkinner, Dereagill)

Janet Clugstone = Alexr. Black (Dunnance, Whithern Lands)
Agnes Black

(The only other Black households in 1684 were (1) in Killidam, Kircowan: John Black=Agnes McDol, kids James and John;
(2) Whithorn Burgh: ?? Black (deceased) = Janet Garroch, kids Agnes and Margaret. (3) Dunnance, Whithorn: Samuel Black= Jane Quiod; (4) Isle, Whithorne: John Black = Janet Little and Robert Black = Janet Cloakie; there were also unmarried servants)

Katrine Clugstone = Alexr. Donnane (1684: Whithern, 1695:Whithorn)
(Most of the Donnans were in Whithorn, except for one family in Glasertoun, Eupram Donnand in Kirkinner, and another in Sorbie)

William Clugstone = Jane Stewart (1684: Whithern, 1695:Whithorn)
(William may be the Kirk Officer in the Covenanter records)

Clugstons in the Covenanter Records 1679-1688

Note that “dilator” means “informer”, “accuser”, “indemnified” = “freed from the consequences of rebellion”.

John Cligstoun. Servant to John Cligstoun in Craithlie

In a “List of the names of the Rebells who being brought in prisoners to Ed[inbu]r[gh] have subscribed the band not to ryse in armes agst his Majestie or his authoritie” [1679]

Peter (or Pieter) Clugstoun (or Clagstone), Kirkcowan, Merchant
1. Fugitive in Wigtown 1679

2. Wigtown Porteus Roll 1683
You are indyted and accused for the crymes of heigh treason & rebellion reseting conversing with & intercomuning with rebells and traitors in so far as a great many persons having in the months of May and June 1679 risen in rebellion in armes agst his majestie his government authoritie and lawes they first attaqued a party of his majesties forces at Drumclog and therefter conveened in armes and went to Glasgow Hamiltoun & Lanerk and seall other places and continued in armes until they were defeat at Bothwell Bridge and [thereafter between 1st July 1679 to 1683] you and ilk ane of you reset harboured maintained aided assisted conversed with intercommuned with and otherwise comforted rebells and traitors who wer actually in the sd rebellion comon and notorious rebells or who wer denounced and registrat to the horne for treason and rebellion or robbed Ministers the tyme of the rebellione of which crymes or ane or other of them you and ilk ane of you are airt and pairt which being found be ae asyse you ought to be punished with the forefaulture of lyfe lands and goods to the terror of others to do the lyke in tyme coming Tested

To be punished with forfeiture of life lands and goods
3. Tried at Ary on 1683.6.20. Took the test before the justices.

John Hannay, in Clugstone
In a Roll of Dilators within the Shire of Wigtoune[ND but bears 2 notes “Before 1688” and “c1682”]Indemnified rebel

Johne Clugstoune, Kirkcowan, Barhoiser/Barhouse
1. In a Roll of Dilators within the Shire of Wigtoune[ND but bears 2 notes “Before 1688” and “c1682”]T[enant] to Craichlaw Indemnified
2. In a list of persons within the Sheriffdom of Wigtoun who craved the benefit of HM indemnity and subscribed the bond 14th Aug 1679
Ane list of those that hes givin the band within the Shyre of Wigtoun to Ritchard Murray of Burghton as Commissioner for that effect fra his Majesties Privie Counscell 1679
3. List of the Witnesses cited agst Pat McDougall of Fruch [ND 1680?] Subheaded witnesses to be cited whos executions wll be sent in
4. Witnesses agst the Laird of Freuch 1679
A List of Witnesses agst rebels 1679
Subscribe bond at Craiglaw 11 Sept 1679

William Clugston, Late Provost of Wigtown
1. A list of witnesses agst Dunbar of Machrimore, Gordone of Culvenan and & McGie of Larg 1679
2. Court of Justiciary holden within the tolbooth of Kirkcudbright the 9th March 1685 about 40 and married sworn and interrogate depons he saw the deceast John Mckie of Larg come in company with the rebels to the town of Wigtoun with arms and that he sat on horseback at the Croce amongst them a considerable time when the rebels were demanding the drum and colours from the deponent This is the truth as he shall answer to God
3. Edinburgh 1st May 1685 Examined in presence of the Lord Justice Clerk and others he declares that he knew the deceast John McGhie of Larg and saw him the time foresaid [the beginning of June 1679] with the rebels in the town of Wigtoun and that he was on horseback and had pistols and sword and saw him sit on horseback amonst the rebels a considerable time when the rebels were demanding the towns drum and colours from the deponent who was then Provost
4. Treason Edinburgh 05/05/1685 Witness Precognition Wm Clugstoun Late Provest of Wigtoun aged 40 years maried purged and sworne depons conformis precedentis in omnibus except that he did not see the rebells searching the toun and this is the truth as he shall answer to God and that the rebells wer asking for drum and collors from the deponent
5. Petition of 6 May 1685 Cited to bear witness agst McKie of Larg and other rebels convened before their Lordships on the 4th instant . Pleas for expenses. Granted at the rate of 16 shillings scots per diem for each horseman and 8 shilings per diem for each man on foot

William Clugstoune, Kirk Officer, Whithorn
In a Roll of Dilators within the Shire of Wigtoune[ND but bears 2 notes “Before 1688” and “c1682”]

Clugstons in the Hearth Tax List of 1695

In 1695 there were 8 Clugston households, five near or in the Barony of Clugston.
William Clugston, the former Provost, had two fireplaces; the others had only one. For comparison, the House of Barnbarroch had 11. The House of Cascreuch in Old Luce had 20. Nothing in the Barony of Clugston had more than one, not even in Mindork. This might mean that Castle Mindork was already a ruin.
Any Clugstons who were too poor to own a house (for example, working as servants) would not be on this list.
Barhose is obviously Barhoish in the Barony of Craiglaw, near the village of Kirkcowan. It looks as though John Clugston owned the mill there.
“Craigmalloch” and “Meikle Eldrick” do not appear in the Parish Lists.

In Old Luce/New Luce

John Mcalexr [Mcalexander] in Balhasken — 1
John Mckie thr [there] — 1
Hugh Mcalexr [Mcalexander] thr [there] — 1
Patrick Clugstoun thr [there] — 1
Hugh Telfeir thr [there] — 1

In Kirkcowan

John Clugstoun in Barhose — 1
As also a kiln — 1
William Clugstoun thr [there] — 1
Gilbert Mccornock thr [there] — 1
John Clugstoun in Craigmallach — 1

John Martine in Miekle Eldrick — 1
John Douglas thr [there] — 1
John Donaldson thr [there] — 1
Thoms Mcgill thr [there] — 1
John Clugston thr [there] — 1
Elizabeth Mcclury thr [there] — 1
Also a kiln amongst them — 1

Wigtown and Kirkinner
Payd out of Cairnfields subt [subscriveit] List
His own house thr [there] — 3
John Sprot thr [there] — 1
John Clugstoun thr [there] — 1
As also a kiln — 1

In the Burgh of Wigtown
Alexander Muir — 1
Jennet stewart — 2
William Clugston late Provist — 2

In the Burgh of Whithorn
William Clugstoun — 1


In 1697.2.25, John Martine of Kirkcowan married Janet Clougston of Kirkinner.
I think she must be the daughter of John Clugstoun of Kirkinner.

30 Apr 1706 Thomas Martine 2nd son to James Martine in Barnhill in Kirkcowan and Grizal Vans eldest lawful daughter to Alexander Vans in Gilshie. “Barnhill” is probably “Barwhill”.

07 Jan 1721 James Martin eldest lawful son to James Martin in High Airies Kirkinner and Jean Clugston eldest lawful daughter to Patrick Clugston deceased intimate their desire of Marriage and after orderly Proc. were Married on 7th January 1721 at Kirkcowan

Earlier references

1635 William Clugston, son of Michael Clugston of Lochcraigoch got Gilbert Clugston’s land in Wigtown next to the Vennel.
1656.4.3 William Clugston, wife Janet McQuhae (probably McKie), sasine of Locheringock
1679.10.10 Wm Clugston, sasine of lands in Lichcraigdock

Putting this together, it looks like the complete family tree is:

Baron John Clugston
    Baron Patrick Clugston ~1480-
        Petir Clugston -1597 = Jane McKe
            (1594: Lochcraigoche)
            William Clugston = Helene Vaus
                Michael Clugston  - 1656
                    William Clugston = Janet McQuhae
                        (1679: Lochcraigoch)
             John Clugston
             Robert Clugston
         Gilbert Clugston (in Dirveade)
             Gilbert Clugston -1635