Wealthy Migrants in England in the Middle Ages

The “Calendar of the Patent Rolls” for the reign of King Edward IV contains a multiple records of granting of English citizenship. This covers the later half of the War of the Roses. At least 20,000 men fell in the Battle of Towtown 29 March 1461. Many of them were nobles. Edward IV was crowned in June 1461. The deposed Henry VI had fled to Scotland. He was captured in 1465. In 1469 the Duke of York captured Edward, and then it was a right mess until Henry VI was murdered in May 1471.

The records almost all follow a standard form:

1461 Nov. 27. Westminster.  “Mandate to all bailiffs and others to permit John of Guthrie, a native of St. Andrews in Scotland, dwelling within the parish of St. Botolph without Algate, London, who has taken an oath of fealty, to inhabit the realm peaceably and enjoy his goods. By p.s.”

Number of Citizenship Records By Year

1461 – 11
1462 – 11
1463 – 8
1464 – 5 (1 in York)
1465 – 4 (1 in York)
1466 – 2
1467 – 2 (1 was Patrick Cloughston)
1468 – 3
1469 – 0
1470 – 0
1471 – 1
1472 – 1
1473 – 0
1474 – 7
1475 – 4
1476 – 4

Of these 60, 8 came from Aberdeen, 6 from Dundee, 4 from Edinburgh, 3 from St Andrews, 3 from St Johns or Johnston, 2 from the Faroe Islands, and 6 from “Scotland”. Apart from one from Normandy and one from Spain, all the remaining 26 were from minor places in Scotland.

The Citizenship Records

This list gives date, name, occupation (if specified), “native of”, and current dwelling. All at Westminster unless otherwise stated.

1461 Aug. 1,  John Bede. Dunglasse in Scotland. Boston in England

1461 Sept. 5, John de Medina. Spain. London.

1461 Oct. 22, John Gray, son of Patrick Gray, Rokysburgh in Scotland, dwelling at London

1461 Nov. 3, John Dawys, clerk.  Craell in Scotland. Stowebydon in England

1461 Nov. 9, Robert de Lynton. bachelor of either law, a native of Scotland, the realm of England  [no oath mentioned]

1461 Nov. 16, Robert Lanther alias Luter. Edynburgh In Scotland. Newemarket, co. Cambridge

1461 Nov. 20, John Grenelawe, ‘taylour’,  Aburden in Scotland, Canterbury

1461 Nov. 27, John of Guthrie, St. Andrews in Scotland, St. Botolph without Algate, London

1461 Nov. 28, John Lesours, Edynburgh in Scotland, staying at the city of Norwich

1461 Dec. 4, Jolm Stedeman, Witsun in Scotland, the realm of England

1461 Dec. 16, John Stagge, chaplain, Aburdeen in Scotland, Norwich in England

1462 June 20, David Lyndesaye, Dunde in Scotland, Redyng within the realm of England

1462 Sept. 12,  Simon Thomson, ‘tailour’, Aburdene in Scotland, Shordyche in England

1462 Oct. 12, William Thomson, chaplain, Edynburgh in Scotland, Herbaldowne in England

1462 Oct. 16, John Spycer, tailor, St. John’s town in Scotland, Byrfeld in England

1462 Oct 30, William Bowsey, chaplain, Coldstreme in Scotland, Holyngton, co Sussex

1462 Nov. 9, Laurence Trane, chaplain, Erewyn in Scotland, city of London

1462 Nov 9, William Greg, ‘yoman’, Aburdene in Scotland,  the parish of St Mary Whitechappell without Algate, London

1462 Nov 20, William Buteler, chaplain, St. Andrews in Scotland, Charryng, co. Kent

1462 Dec 4, Andrew Bane, chaplain, Dundy in Scotland, Colchestre, co Essex

1462 Dec. 4, William Alayn, ‘smyth’, Anehand  in Scotland, Challoke, co. Kent

1462 Dec. 18, John Beverley, ‘bocher’, Arbrothe in Scotland, Feversham, co. Kent

1462/3 Feb. 5, Thomas Michelson, clerk, Scotland, Mikelfeld in the diocese of Norwich in England

1462/3 March 15, Richard Herrys, Edynburgh in Scotland, staying at London

1463 April 28, John Jonston, priest, monk, alias John Johnston, chaplain, the town of Jonston in Scotland, Poslyngford in England

1463 May 6, Simon Comyn, chaplain, [born in] Coldyngham in Scotland, Little Walsyngham in England

1463 May 6, John Gray alias Barbour, [born in] Edynburgh in Scotland, Little Walsyngham, co. Norfolk

1463 May 18, Alexander Willyamson, [born in] Aburdene in Scotland, Little Walsyngham, co. Norfolk

1463 July 4, John Mychelson, [born in] Aburdene in Scotland, Skulthorpe, co. Norfolk

1463 Sept. 29, John Qwhytburn, [born in] Gedeworth in Scotland, Stowebardolf, co. Norfolk

1463/4. Feb. 4, Robert Hikkesson, ‘yoman’, Dunde in Scotland, Estmallyng, co. Kent

1463/4 March 1, David Smyth, chaplain,  Aburdene in Scotland, Peterborough

1464 April 5, John Abbot alias Lam, chaplain, [born in] St. Andrews in Scotland, Greane, co. Kent

1464 June 10, William Inglis, Kelsowe in Scotland, the city of York, [York]

1464 Nov. 4, Andrew Malyson, chaplain, [born in] Saynt Johnston in Scotland, Rodmersham, co Kent

1465 June 19, John Englyssh, chaplain, [born in] Neubotell in Scotland, Brandeston, co. Suffolk

1465 July 8, Peter Cros, ‘baxster’, [born in] Hunflete in the parts of Normandy, Hotoft, co. Lincoln

1465 Sept. 26, John Blake, Mancarston in Scotland, the town of Ratheby, co.
Lincoln, [York] 

1465 Oct. 16, Edward Ayleward alias Thornam, [born in] the island of Ferrey under the allegiance of the king of Denmark, Crowemer, co. Norfolk

1465/6 March 3, Gilbert Carnwith alias Bilton, chaplain, [born in] Uxton in Scotland, Wygenhale, England

1466 Nov. 26,  John Plompton alias John son of Donald Makaghhern, [born in] Incelaraghlyn in Scotland, Canterbury

1467 April 14, Richard Govan, chaplain, [born in] Abunlyne in Scotland, Mayloiid, co. Essex

1467 May 1, Patrick Cloughston, chaplain,  [born in] Wigton in Galewey in Scotland, Shopeland, co. Essex

1467/8 Jan. 18, ” Licence for Master Patrick Hallyburton, born in Scotland, to dwell within the realm of England as a faithful liege of the king, to receive and be instituted to ecclesiastical benefices and to freely enjoy his goods.”

1468 June 17, “Licence for William Melros, chaplain, born in Scotland, to dwell within the realm as a subject of the king and to receive and be admitted to ecclesiastical benefices under the dignity of a deanery and to enjoy his goods. By K.”

1468 Aug 12, James Johnson, [born at] Bonby in Scotland, Aylcsford within the realm of England

1471 Aug. 15, John Rose, Lowmaban in Scotland, Beverley in England

1471/2 Feb 15, Edward Ayleward alias Thornam, [born in] island of Farrey under the allegiance of the king of Denmark, Crowmer, co. Norfolk

1474 June 21, John Nicoll, chaplain, Alberden in Scotland, Rodmersham, co. Kent

1474 June 21, Henry Lilburn, chaplain, [born at] Alberden in Scotland, Ottrinden, co. Kent

1474 July 1, Thomas Archav, chaplain, [born at] Coupyr in Fyffe in Scotland, Stucley, co. Huntingdon

1474 July 1, Alexander Seton, [born in] Seton in Scotland, Henxsell, co. Kent

1474 July, David Davyson, chaplain, [born in] Dundy in Scotland, Feltwell in England

1474 July 20, John Heige alias Harres alias Gardener, [born in] Saltpreston in Scotland, city of London

1474 Oct. 14, John Grant, monk, [born at ] Perth in Scotland, Warden, co. Bedford

1475 May 18, John Wynshelys, Nesbit in Scotland, Hicchyn, co. Hertford

1475 Nov. 5, Grant for life to Humphrey Grahame, chaplain, born in Scotland, that he may freely dwell within the realm of England, the town of Calais and the limits of the same and other places subject to the king and accept benefices below the dignity of the deanery of a cathedral church and enjoy his goods and possessions. By K.

1475 Nov 6, John Kyd, chaplain, [born in] Scotland, England

1475 Nov. 20, William Tomson, Berwyk in Scotland, Bernestowne, co. York

1475/6 Feb 23, Henry Dolas, [born at] Arbrodyt in Scotland,  Kenelworth, co. Warwick

1475/6 Feb. 27, William Oughtre, ‘taillour’, alias William Parker, [born at] Dundye in Scotland, the realm of England

1475/6 March 14, William Harwode, Dundee in Scotland, Salisbury, co. Wilts

1476 July 18, Nicholas More, chaplain, born in Scotland, Eedyng, co. Berks


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